Articular cartilage damage in the knee is commonly seen in the elderly as part of the degenerative process of arthritis, and can relatively easily be managed with joint replacement surgery when symptoms are sufficiently severe. Articular cartilage damage in the younger population is a far more challenging dilemma with no currently accepted and effective treatment. This can lead to pain, loss of function and an inability to participate in everyday activities. This damage can also lead to further breakdown of the joint resulting in early osteoarthritis. Joint replacement in active, younger patients often gives inferior outcomes and will result in premature implant failure due to the higher demands being placed upon the implant.